is an internet joke saying that 2022 is just 2020 ... too. The January
of 2022 is only the 25th month of 2020. Nothing has changed, and we are
still in COVID Time. However, from another perspective, the world we
live in is undergoing tremendous changes and moving in an unknown
direction at high speed.
China's open source, the keyword for 2021 should be "run-up." The signs
are undeniable. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of
the People's Republic of China (MIIT) has released the "14th Five-Year
Plan for the Development of Software and Information Technology
Services", a typical signal that the open source sector will take off.
Walking on the ground to flying in the sky are two completely different
stages. The year 2021 is the run-up phase before the take-off. From the
ground to the sky, the whole pattern of behavior will change profoundly.
We used to think about paths and directions in a two-dimensional plane,
but when we get to the sky, we have countless more options in
three-dimensional space.Although we cannot predict and grasp the future and the state in the air, we are running hard and moving forward courageously.
last year's China Open Source Annual Report, we summarized three
trends, and this year, we added a new section called "Open Source
Milestones," which revealed ten trends. So in this preface, let us talk
about our feelings.
Out of the CiecleOpen
source is getting hotter and hotter and has sparked various discussions
among friends outside the circle. First, investors with a keen sense
began to pay attention to the open source field. Then, against the
Sino-US confrontation background, many people began to discuss open
source (which was initially a purely technical category) from the
perspective of international politics, national strength, and national
security. The recent open source software security incidents made
everyone talk in succession. Such a mixed phenomenon may be likely to
the open source was just a niche hobby, it was free to do almost
anything. Nevertheless, today, as software devours the world and open
source eats software, open source technology has become one of the
infrastructures of the entire world. With great powers comes great
responsibility. The wider the application, the higher the risk. How
should we think about and secure the open source supply chain? How
should we build a healthier open source ecology? In such an ecology, how
should the responsibilities of all parties be defined?
Sense of HistoryFor
the fourth consecutive year, KaiYuanShe has published the China Open
Source Annual Report and held the sixth China Open Source Conference. In
the exchange with friends, we often talk about: what will happen if we
contribute open source for another 10 or 20 years? If, after another 10
to 20 years, how we open sourcers reflect on the past? What have we done
right, what have we done wrong, or what should we have done earlier?
Such a feeling is a "sense of history." How should we choose when we
have more such a sense of history and more of a mindset that we will be
looked back at in the future? Furthermore, how should we act?Of
course, the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. The
future we yearn for infinitely can only be shaped by our puny efforts.
Let us share it with you all!Zhuang Biaowei, 2021 Chairman of the Board, KaiYuanShe
Part2Overview of the report
The 2021 China Open Source Annual Report is mainly composed of four parts, which are questionnaire,data, commercialization and 2021 open Source events.
2021 China Open Source Annual Report·Questionnaire
early 2016, KaiYuanShe released the 2015 China Open Source Community
Attendance Survey Report. In the following years, it continued to
release developer survey reports, aiming to present open source
development in China from various dimensions. This year we set off
again, combining data analysis tools and survey reports in various forms
to draw a map of the Chinese open source scenarios in 2021.
questionnaire is an essential part of the annual China Open Source
Report, and an analysis report without research is just an empty talk.
We conduct the questionnaire from two perspectives: personal information
(including work information and developer technical information) and
open source community participation.
the statistical survey and analysis of 44 or so questions, we hope to
restore the real status of the current Chinese open source community, so
as to provide an authoritative reference for the later generations of
2021 China Open Source Annual Report · Data
DescriptionEach table has a csv file attached to it for ease of follow-up.
Activity formula：Note: The project's activity only considers the developer's behavior data in the current project.
2021 China Open Source Annual Report - Commercialisation
is fair to say that there has been no contradiction between open source
software and commercialization from its inception and that open source
is not the same as free. The term Open Source was coined in 1998 to
remove the ambiguity of "Free" in Free Software and make it more
commercial friendly. In recent years, as some open source companies have
made a splash in the capital market, the perception of open source
commercialization has gradually increased in the domestic developer
community and among investors. The unique development model of open
source has created substantial potential business value, attracting
developers, technology companies, investment institutions, and other
parties to invest in the open source industry.
it is undisputed that open source companies can realize cash, choosing
which model is the most efficient for commercialization is still a
problem for every open source company. There are five open source
commercialization models: support, hosting, restricted licensing, open
core, and hybrid licensing. Under the current open source market,
hosting, open core, and hybrid licensing are the most mainstream
technology companies to adopt, but companies should choose their
business path based on their community and product situation.
is an essential participant in the development of the open source
market. For investment institutions, when judging an open source
project, they usually consider the following points comprehensively: In
the product development phase, the focus is on whether the company has
ownership and control of the code and whether it is internationally
competitive; in the community operation phase, the focus is on whether
the company has solid operational capabilities; and in the
commercialization phase, the ability to match the market and the
maturity of the business model will be the primary concerns.
This chapter is written by the investment team of Yunqi Partners Investment team and covers the following topics● Underlying drivers of successful open source software commercialization● Possible commercialization paths for open source software companies● Judgment criteria for open source project investors and case studies
2021 Open Source Chronology
1. National open source policies will have a significant impact on the future of the open source world
2021, many countries released policies that elevate open source to a
strategic height at the national level, affirming the importance of the
open source model to IT innovation and software industry development and
making it an important task to prosper the open source ecology. A
typical example is the "Fourteenth Five-Year Plan for the Development of
Software and Information Technology Services Industry" issued by the
Department of Information Technology Development of the Ministry of
Industry and Information Technology.
2. Trends in open source legal compliance: Awareness grows, but the road is long
the increasing use of open source code in various industries, some open
source projects have become "big business," and discussions around open
source legal and compliance issues have come into focus. Events such as
China's first ruling on the legal effect of the GPL 3.0 agreement and
the settlement of oracle's copyright infringement case against Google
show that the software industry is becoming more aware of open source
legal and compliance issues.
3. Open source governance becomes epiphany
source software security incidents occur frequently, and supply chain
governance of open source software becomes increasingly essential. The
Linux Foundation is actively promoting OpenChain to connect and exchange
with domestic and international communities, and the China Academy of
Information and Communications Technology and many domestic enterprises
are paying close attention or joining. In addition, how enterprises open
source, the project open source process, open source project metrics,
and other issues are also the industry's focus. The Linux Foundation's
open source project CHAOSS, which measures the health of open source
projects and communities, is worthy of attention.
4. The International Foundation's game of "Left and Right Inter-fighting": the return of RMS to the Free Software Foundation and the Rust community controversy
source software projects require the collaboration of different
stakeholders, and conflicts within the community can undoubtedly have a
negative impact on the development and maintenance of software projects.
In 2021, the controversial return of Richard M. Stallman, the father of
free software, to the Free Software Foundation and the collective
resignation of the Rust Community Moderation Team due to dissatisfaction
with the Core Team had exposed the complex dynamics and governance
challenges facing the FREE and Open Source software community.
5. China's open source approach to the world, shaping the influence of the new era
influence of Chinese developers in the open source world is growing.
According to the latest GitHub Annual Developer Report, the number of
Chinese developers on GitHub increased by nearly 1.03 million in 2021,
to about 7.55 million. More and more open source projects from China in
international open source foundations such as ASF, LF, and CNCF, and
more Chinese open source people are being elected to key positions in
6. Open source start-up investment continues to shineFrom
the end of 2020 to the end of 2021, domestic and foreign startups based
on open source projects are more active than ever, and it is common to
see commercial companies based on open source projects getting financing
and going listed. The amount of financing and valuation/market value
continue to set new ceilings, and the commercial value of open source
communities and open source software is recognized by capital.
7. Open source operating systems usher in a new boom
the end of 2020, RedHat announced that it would end support for CentOS 8
by 2021. Users around the world began to try to find a suitable
operating system to replace it, and the timely resolution of the risks
that users might face after CentOS was withdrawn became the direction
that operating system vendors and R&D personnel worked on, which
made open source operating systems usher in a new booming period in
8. Rust on a new journey
2021, the Rust Foundation was founded by Mozilla, Amazon, Huawei,
Google, and Microsoft, and Rust finally left the "turmoil" behind. The
Linux community has also shown a positive attitude towards Rust, and
with the Rust for Linux project well underway in the second half of
2021, developers can expect to see official support for Rust in the
Linux kernel in 2022.
9. How AI&low code will change open source is worth watching
source work in the age of artificial intelligence faces a whole new set
of challenges. The GitHub Copilot tool, released this year, uses
machine learning techniques to provide code suggestions/auto-completion
and has generated quite a bit of controversy. Many developers have
argued that GitHub Copilot's claim to train on public code is in fact an
indiscriminate "plagiarism" of open source code without following the
open source license.
10. Open source hardware continues to heat up and RISC-V achievements emerge
source hardware continues to heat up as the demand for custom hardware
increases, and more startups seek accelerators and solutions for
building highly suitable AI/ML algorithms. Moreover, with the advent of
the RISC-V processor ISA, open source hardware has become a reality. At
the same time, RISC-V is receiving more and more attention and
investment in China, and more outstanding results are coming out.
Full ReportReviewer (Cai Fangfang and Zhuang Biaowei)
Authors (in alphabetical order):
Alfalfa Rabbit, Cai Fangfang, Gao Yuan, Geng Hang, Guo Xue, Jiang
Weijie, Li Zhenhu, Liang Yao, Liu Tiandong, Wang Rong, Wei Jianvan, Xue
Liang, YangLiyun, Zhang Junxia, Zhuang Biaowei